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The command-line TypeScript compiler can be installed as a Node.js package.
To Install just run npm install -g typescript
Then to Compile just run tsc helloworld.ts
DefinitelyTyped - The repository for high quality TypeScript type definitions
The Sixth Edition, known as ES6 or ECMAScript 2015 was released on the .
Then in the Seventh Edition has been released, known as ECMAScript 2016 or sometimes ES2016 or ES7.
The TypeScript team has some great documentation but be sure to check out the tutorials section for a run down on working with TypeScript and
Working with TypeScript
We do most of our TypeScript work within Visual Studio Code and have found it to be a great working enviroment for day to day work.
The Visual Studio Code team have a good guide to getting up and running with TypeScript..
TypeScript Version 2
So the 11th of July saw the Announcement of the TypeScript 2.0 Beta and updates for tooling with regards to Visual Studio 2015 (Announcing TypeScript 2.0 Beta).
The What's new in TypeScript page on the TypeScript Wiki provides great coverage as to whats new in version 2, be sure to take a read.
TypeScript Version 3
TypeScript 3.0 was released on 30 July 2018. This blog post Announcing TypeScript 3.0 covers whats new and the journey to v3.
Visual Studio Code 1.27 now ships with TypeScript version 3.0.3
TypeScript Version 3.1 RC
13 September - Announcing TypeScript 3.1 RC - Blog Post with set up details.